Friday nights at Ushuaïa Ibiza now belong to Calvin Harris. One of the most iconic names in the electronic game, Harris will kick off his 2019 residency at the Balearic hot spot on August 2. From there, Harris will take the decks of Ushuaïa Ibiza each consecutive Friday evening, until his residency finale on September 6.
The technical team that routinely brings about Ushuaïa Ibiza’s masterful live production, from glittering pyrotechnic displays to striking lighting and visual synchronicity, will man the production of each Harris date for the rest of the summer. Tickets to the “Giant” producer’s summer residency at the open-air club are available, here.
Techno Tuesday is a feature on Dancing Astronaut documenting the culture of underground dance music. We’ll bring you exclusive interviews, tracks, and narratives from artists within the techno, tech house, and deep house world in an effort to shed light on some of the best talent outside the world of mainstream dance music.
Few acts stick to their guns like Darius Syrossian. The longtime house & techno stalwart has always been an outspoken critic of boxing his sound into a category, instead opting to focus on the ethos of each of his productions and their ultimate effectiveness on the floor when it comes to prompting footwork and euphoria. Not to mention, he possesses a perfectionist streak that ensures his own productions are as tight as a Roman aqueduct and that his mixing behind the decks is equally seamless. Such passion and drive equates to longterm success, with Syrossian earning high acclaim in leading the iconic Do Not Sleep series while also maintaining a heavy tour and release schedule. After a long and storied list of achievements over the past couple decades, however, the stalwart began feeling out of touch with the club scene and in need of something new to inspire his career.
Enter his solution: MOXY MUZIK, a brand new label and clubbing concept in which Darius’ aim is to “take clubbing back to clubs.” Launched in December, the digital/vinyl label is dedicated toward the cutting edge and underground side of house and techno. Its artists and releases are carefully handselected for their timelessness and ability to stand out as quality tunes well over a decade past release. Thus, it’s no wonder that Doc Martin, Cassy, Seb Zito, Dense & Pika, and more have been among those chosen to help break the label in. MOXY MUZIK takes on a Darius-centric route for its clubbing concept, with its founder choosing a new location each month to return to his early DJing roots and perform a extended sets each time. While he won’t be doing this in the states anytime soon, followers can at least get a taste through his upcoming Miami Music Week pool party with his Do Not Sleep camp on March 27. Tickets for that here. In the meantime, we picked Syrossian’s brain on his label, recent EP Dance Of The Shaman, musical philosophy, the meaning of “underground,” and more for this Techno Tuesday.
What elements make a song more ‘underground’ to you?
I was reading a tweet by Man Power the other day, he said the word ‘underground’ maybe isn’t the right word to describe his music and sets, and that maybe the word should be ‘Uncompromising’? Makes sense though, but either way, I think when we use this term, I think it means we are saying the music we are referring to is made as an art not to please the masses, there is always some kind of latest fad, and with every fad there is hundreds of tracks made to attract the attention of people who want more of that latest fad, for example, pop music is called that for the very reason that its popular right? And it’s made to be popular, so it’s not underground or uncompromising. So I’d have to say what makes a track more underground is when it’s made by any particular artist because it’s what they feel is their music coming out of them, and not to please the masses.
Can you expand a bit on walking the line between underground music and dance floor accessibility?
Well, I think there is certain sections of the industry where people who claim to be underground purists turn their nose up at anything that may be absolutely huge on the dance floor, this does not have to be the case, I mean tech house has a dirty name now, but if you think to when the term was started it was mid 90s at that particular time Tech House was music that DJs like Ian Pooley and Terry Francis (fabric) who were playing, and it was amazing music, loved by the purists, it was also music that labels like plastic city from Germany was releasing, again, it was labels that the purists loved, it had a bit more soul and depth to it, but essentially it was still Tech House, and I think right now, music that is maybe club friendly is frowned upon by those that claim to be underground purists. I just want to show that music CAN be made to make a dance floor explode, and it still can have soul and have some depth, and still please these purists. Not all underground music has to be abstract leftfield music.
I feel there is a big shift with too much generic tech house being forced on people who want to go to clubs to DANCE. While at the same time, a lot of underground music is becoming less and less dance floor friendly, so I want to show that underground can still be for the dance floor, and is not belonging solely to chin strokers who don’t go out clubbing!
How has your sound changed over the years?
I honestly don’t think it has, I’ve always liked a certain sound, which is both house and techno which has a strong emphasis on the groove and drums, quite minimal and is inspired by the early US house and techno sound but has darker European influences in it, and lots of Chicago influences when it comes to the drums, but having said all that, for anyone who listens to my sets that are at least three hours long, I cross over so many different genres, I’ll play house, to techno, move through prog, and even touch on some disco, I prefer to be a bit more balearic and don’t want to stick to one linear sound the whole set, I like to take it on a journey.
Tell us about your process for selecting the first round of artists to release on the label.
It’s about selecting artists who I think are making music because it is their art, and that will be music that I think will do two things to me, 1 make me want to dance, 2 be Music that I think ill still want to listen to in ten years time, and not just be music that is made to fit the latest fad, and make the top 10 sales charts, as I said in another interview, this side of things doesn’t interest me and its not why I started the Moxy Muzik label, most of my favourite music that I find when digging for music isn’t even in the top 100 charts, to me those things don’t matter.
What are some of your biggest goals for MOXY MUZIK?
I think to make sure I keep releasing music that I’m proud of releasing and that I can sit back in ten years and listen to it all again and still feel it not just in a nostalgic sense but in a way that it’s still music that I would play then as well. Also I’m putting out every release on vinyl which will also have bespoke hand drawn art because I want it to be something physical you can pick up, hold, and see, and not be disposable or digital music people play for a few weeks then it’s gone and forgotten about.
Did you already the remixers chosen in your head as you were making “Dance of the Shaman?” Tell us about what led you to choose these collaborators.
No not at all, when I’m in the studio the only thing I’m thinking about is how that track is developing. Only when it’s totally finished and roadtested and I’m happy with a track will I then begin to decide about remixers. But overall I have a list of artists I admire, and when a track is finished ill look at the track and then at the list and i’ll pick out artists from that list that I think would be good for that particular track.
Who are some artists breathing originality back into house music at the moment?
Well there are way too many to mention across the whole spectrum of electronic music, but since you asked about house music specifically I’d say Shanti Celeste is doing some amazing productions, everything she does has so much soul, but maintains a good groove, then there are artists like Ben Rau right now, Archie Hamilton, Spencer Parker.
I think some of the best artists don’t get any press, but if you really search you can find so many great artists who are doing amazing things musically, yes there are artists blowing up all the time but sometimes music isn’t the main reason they are exploding. There are other factors and social media has played a part in that, maybe in the past without social media artists were judged only by peoples ears, because the only way to judge a DJ was by hearing how good he or she played a set maybe or how good he or she produced a track? But with social media, the press can see that IMAGE can play a big role in how popular an artist can be and this is definitely playing a role.
Anything else big happening in your pipeline?
Well I’m about to go on a South America tour, when I’m back it’s a heavy schedule over Christmas and New Year period and then in 2019 the Moxy Muzik label launch parties start which is gonna be a series of shows where I play six hours, and they are all held in small intimate venues, like Mint Club Leeds, Joshua Brooks Manchester, 93 Feet East London, Kater Blau Berlin and loads more, the aim of this is to take clubbing back to CLUBS, and I love doing the big warehouse events, they are great but there is a distinct lack of DJs playing smaller intimate venues I feel, and they are some of the best parties, so I’m focusing on these kind of sets for the label parties and they are gonna be long all night long sets, so I’m excited to get these underway.
Toolroom Records is taking a summer-long family vacation, June 2 to September 22, to Ibiza for a season-wide residency at one of the island’s landmark locales, Eden.
Throughout the 17-week, Sunday-night commission, Toolroom will assemble its top-tier talent, as well as an abundance of fresh-on-the-scene label additions. For years, Eden has been nothing short of a wall-to-wall dance music destination in the White Isle, hosting prestigious residencies with Disclosure, Dubfire, Pete Tong, and even Lady Gaga. The multi-level club also just received top-to-bottom refurbishment as a product of its new ownership.
“Eden is a clubbers venue with an impeccable sound system,” says label head, Mark Knight. “It’s all about the music and people coming together in perfect harmony, which was the original essence of Ibiza, so to be back with them on the White Isle will really be something special.”
The Mark Knight-headed Toolroom celebrated its 15th anniversary in 2018. In that time they’ve released hundreds of records, conducted multiple world tours, and continued to readily adapt to the fiercely fluctuating industry climate. It’s only fitting that soon they will return to one of the most culturally impactful dance music havens on Earth.
Lady Gaga‘s new Las Vegas residency has been one of the most anticipated entertainment events in the country since its announcement over the summer. The show, known as Enigma, is a high-tech production launching at MGM’s Park Theater on Friday December 28. Earlier this year, rumors broke that Boys Noize and the Joanne vocalist were collaborating, and now with Enigma’s debut, Berlin’s favorite son took to Twitter to tease his involvement in the show’s production.
In the tantalizing Enigma teaser posted on Instagram, an animated female figure is whisked through a celestial transformation, ending with a chill-inducing “Hello, Gaga” at the end of the short clip. Boys Noize posted the video as well, suggesting that he’s adding to his already spectacular rap sheet in 2018 as his presumed collaboration with Lady Gaga is likely starting to reach the surface. Gaga will perform for the first time at the Park MGM a decade after the New Yorker skyrocketed into super stardom with her debut album, The Fame.
Drake is headed to Las Vegas in 2019, and he’s got the Wynn in his cross hairs. With too many Vegas-inspired lyrics to count, the OVO helmer will be right at home when he headlines XS Nightclub on January 10, as part of the larger Consumer Electronics Show going on that same week. The show is billed as an added amenity for the convention, though admission is also open to the public. While Drake’s Strip appearances have previously been more few and far between, his performance at XS at the onset of 2019 has sparked speculation that Vegas might be a more frequent territory for the Scorpion rapper in the future, and additional performances could soon follow.
Los Angeles is not just Sacha Robotti‘s new home, but also his residence.
The news is out that Sound nightclub has officially booked the Dirtybird veteran and Sloth King for a summer residency beginning on June 23. To boot, each show will also be an open-to-close affair, allowing him to showcase his full essence as an artist.
Ahead of this expansive collaboration, Robotti has prepared an exclusive Sloth Sanctuary mix for Dancing Astronaut ears to consume. He fits quite a large breadth of tunes within its one hour span, starting off slow and grooving before heading into the dark and driving techno realm. It breeds further interest as to what a six hour set by this stalwart might sound like while also packing in a high charged mix of tunes that is sure to boost any pre-game.
Las Vegas — since its early days, the desert city has defined itself as a veritable playground for America’s adult population. Its famed mile-long Strip is filled with more casinos, clubs, and hotels than one can count. Furthermore, the city’s laissez-faire energy is known to breed good memories in those looking for a temporary escape.
For all its glory, however, monotony and oversaturation remain constant threats that hang over the festive oasis. It becomes difficult to stand out amongst a vast array of similar competitors that are all within walking distance of one another.
This is where Drai’s comes in; owned by nightlife stalwart Victor Drai, the brand has become renowned for its forward-thinking concepts since its legacy began two decades ago with the Strip’s first-ever afterhours establishment. In 2014, the name evolved into a full-on institution with the foundation of its beach club and nightclub that hang over the corner of Flamingo Rd.
Drai’s mission has been to defy musical norms on the Strip.” The method is to simply not follow the status quo,” stated talent buyer Dave Fogg of their approach toward scouting out its artists. Their nightclub is renowned for the primarily live hip-hop and R&B artists that perform on its immersive stage. “Drai’s Nightclub is unarguably one of the top hip-hop venues in the country, showcasing live, 45+ minute concerts by today’s top artists,” continued Fogg. In creating such an experience, the brand has effectively led the charge in the changing Vegas landscape.
“When you’re looking at programming talent and curating that for the best possible customer experience, it’s easy to just look at the artists at the top of the charts and begin to throw large sums of money at them. We wanted to break out of that trope and look at the opportunities to pull from the incredibly deep pool of musical talent that’s out there to give our guests a truly unparalleled experience.” – Dave Fogg”
Its adjoining rooftop beach club — the first and only of its kind on the Strip — is equally progressive. It offers guests luxurious amenities across its spacious 30,000 square foot spread as the daytime festivities wear on, including luxury cabanas and bungalows, towel service, and full service bars and cafe. Most stunning, however, are the views that surround the outdoor venue of the Strip and surrounding desert.
The club’s setting is as spectacular as its artist billing, which, like its nightclub, chooses from a pool of the cutting-edge. One of their new summer additions, TroyBoi, proves a perfect fit it into this ethos. Hailing from the UK, the former Diplo collaborator is known for his gritty take on trap, as well as his collaborations with rising talent in the rap game. His sound skillfully walks the line between dance and hip-hop making him “a great fit for Drai’s Beachclub because of the high-energy show he’s going to deliver,” according to Fogg. In fact, he is more than confident of his of his booking decision: “Troy’s been on my radar for about four years from a DJ perspective. I’d been watching him grow as an artist with his own trademark sound since that time, then literally, meteoric.”
Fogg is not wrong; TroyBoi has exploded into a veritable icon lately, bolstered by the success of his debut album Left and Right, and singles like his long-awaited Ekali collaboration, “Truth.” He remains humble, however, voicing that he was “thrilled” when Drai’s approached him for a residency. “I’m really looking forward to bringing my sound to the Vegas scene and taking advantage of the insane set up provided by Drai’s. Vegas’ party scene is so hype so I’m keen to give them a dose of the Boi,” he expressed.
“Our goal is to provide the ultimate entertainment experience so that whether you’re an experienced clubgoer who parties on the shores of Ibiza or an accountant from middle America, you’ll never forget your experience at Drai’s and will want to come back on your next trip to Las Vegas because there will surely be something new and exciting in store.” – Dave Fogg
What else does a TroyBoi residency hold, one might ask? “That you will have to wait and see!” the producer advised. “But, a TroyBoi residency is all about good vibes, good music and creating memories that will last you a lifetime.” When reflecting on what inspires him most sonically, he divulged, “I’m always inspired by a good drum beat or rhythm. The beat is the backbone of every track and I love to dance, so it’s gotta make me move!” It appears that one thing is for sure: he will be ensuring a highly danceable atmosphere with each show, and fond memories of Drai’s in his viewers’ minds.
Head over to Drai’s website for more information and dates for what’s sure to be a revolutionary residency by TroyBoi.
Calvin Harris topped Forbes‘ list of the highest paid DJs for the fifth consecutive year in 2017, but as 2018 begins to unfold, it seems that a sixth year at the number one spot on the list is likely as Harris rakes in a hefty sum for the renewal of his Las Vegas residency with Hakkasan Group.
Determined not to see Harris “Slide” out of the entertainment capital, the luxury nightlife brand has extended Harris’ Omnia Nightclub residency through 2020, an elongation that arrives at the price of £200 million (approximately $280 million USD). The figure breaks down to a pay out of a little more than £1 million each night that Harris performs at the world famous nightclub.
Harris fans traveling to the Strip can get exactly what they “came for” given the producer’s extended residency, and can purchase tickets to Harris’ upcoming shows, here.
Following in the titular fashion of his double-platinum single, when it comes to Las Vegas, Zedd is there to “Stay.”
The entertainment capital of the world will see Zedd grace a variety of Hakkasan Group venues, with the world renowned hospitality company officially extending the Grammy nominee’s residency into 2020 in what is Hakkasan Group’s first residency renewal of the new year. Zedd will accordingly appear at Hakkasan Nightclub, WET REPUBLIC at MGM Grand, and OMNIA Nightclub.
“Zedd has been a fantastic addition to our artist roster, and we’re excited to continue our partnership with this multi-year residency extension,” says Hakkasan Vice President James Algate of the renewal, “Every time he takes the stage, he provides fans with an energetic and dynamic experience, which is exactly what we set out to achieve through all of our venues.”
Zedd echoes the sentiment, pronouncing Vegas to be “like a second home.” “It’s always great to get to play for my fans there,” Zedd remarks, ““The crowds bring such great energy every time and I’m excited to continue to be a part of the Hakkasan family.”
Those seeking to catch one of Zedd’s forthcoming Vegas based performances can purchase tickets here.
The name “Black Coffee” has been one of high interest as of late on the house circuit. Cutting his teeth in the South African underground during his youth, the beloved icon — born Nkosinathi (Nathi) Maphumulo — initially broke into the scene in the early 2000s and worked his way into becoming a household name around just a decade later in 2015 as the “Breakthrough DJ of the Year” at the DJ Awards. A year later, he became the first South African to win a BET award.
Nathi’s continued success comes a large part from his keen talent at dismantling preconceived notions of what himself or others from his region sound like. Instead, his ultimate and unwavering vision is to paint worldly, class imagery with his carefully-crafted sets while also moving people with original productions that he hopes will be carried far into the future. His unrelenting humility and passion also set him apart from the fact, as fans feed off his infection energy worldwide.
The past summer season has been yet another monumental one for Black Coffee, who was chosen to lead one of Hï Ibiza’s first residencies. While one might feel a certain pressure playing a venue that was once the iconic space, Nathi navigated his residency with poise and distinction, enchanting each crowd with his blend of memorable hooks, subdued rhythms, and creative melodic manipulation. Additionally, he curated a caliber roster of artists joining him for his residency which represented the best of fellow South African talent.
Ahead of his next round of tour dates, one of which includes an October 21 show at Brooklyn’s Output (tickets here), Black Coffee took some time to talk more about these artists he nurtures, the South African dance scene, new bodies of work, and more.
You’re wrapping up your first season at Hï right now! How is playing that club? Do you think it can fill the void that Space left?
It’s been such an amazing experience. As a DJ I’ve always envisioned a residency in Ibiza, and to have a club to play at for the city. I never expected it to be on this level. Hï is the ultimate for me. It has been one of the greatest experiences of my career. I’ve learned so much from it!
Do you think it can fill the void that Space left?
Definitely, definitely. The very big room was something that we are always very much aware of. Normally I have my reservations and fears about making it work and every night it would be at full capacity. And between those nights I would do shows outside on the island and because of that now I’ve started seeing the difference and the impact that the residency has because of all these places I go to. Now, most people go to Hï in Ibiza and it has somehow grown my audience as well.
You mentioned fears and reservations, does playing big rooms normally make you nervous?
I get nervous everywhere, because I consider all I do a little bit differently. I always walk into a room to educate people on a different sound. Education is good, but it’s not a pleasant thing at times and I always get nervous at that fact. Whoever’s playing before me, no matter how underground the music is, it’s definitely a sound people in Europe are accustomed to, or anywhere for that matter, and here comes me who’s gonna come with a different sound, blend it with different things. I never take anything for granted or think they [the audience] will know who I am. It’s just going to happen. Whether the venues big or small, it’s the same for me.
Tell us more about the artists you chose to play alongside you? What made them stand out?
These are artists I really respect and most of these guys have been doing it for awhile on the island. The entire idea was when we mold this night we tried to create a certain vibe or sound in the room. For everyone who was chosen they were chosen on what they’re bringing in the room. It was all based on a preset we had. Ok, this is what we’re doing, this is what we want to achieve because Hï is a very big club. We wanted artists that are related musically to what I am doing.
How has the South African scene grown and developed over the years? What do you think is needed to make it into a dance music mecca, or is it already in your opinion?
It still has a very long way to go. Music there is a big thing. Dance music is a huge thing. You go to different parts of Europe and dance music doesn’t exist in communities, only in the night, in the dark, in the clubs. Obviously at the festivals too, which is a seasonal thing, but the difference with South Africa is that it’s constantly there. On the radio, house music is constantly in people’s lives, which is cool, but then there’s no control or there’s no culture. For instance, mostly when people go to South Africa they will send me a message: ‘Hi, I’m in South Africa where do you think I can go for a great night out?’ And I never have that answer. Because we don’t have much of the house music clubbing scene. There’s no structure in that sense. Music is there. It’s everywhere. There are clubs but clubs are just for entertainment. On nights you’ll get a hip-hop DJ or a house DJ or the live act or a live house singer. All of that is there but there’s nothing for the house music scene at all, and I think it starts there — with creating a home. When there’s a home there’s also education and then we can start bringing the same lineup I was having here at Hï, so that the locals will start to get educated on what’s happening internationally. For now, we’re just small and local. We love our local sound and it’s cool but we’re not growing on a bigger scale. We’re still like homegrown so I just feel like we need more clubs that will specialize on the scene and we can start interacting with the world and bringing different people vice versa and local artists will start going out as well. We need to create that cultural exchange of some sort.
Do you feel that a house club would be a good means of cultural exchange or do you feel it could possibly diminish the integrity of music South Africa’s established?
Yeah, I think it will add value. What’s been established there is there. It’s not going anywhere.
We need a place where you wanna go and just listen to house music., you know? A place where you get to hear of new local DJs that you didn’t know existed, along with some international DJs you didn’t know existed as well. In that sense, everyone is growing also. Young kids who DJ, maybe even aren’t producing music at all, they’re just DJs and at this point and there’s no place like that here because the venues are booking established acts for business. So there’s no home for house, but I want to change that.
Would you say then that as a successful DJ, it’s more important than ever to show off budding local talent from the homeland if the chance is given?
Extremely, extremely. This is all I do all the time. The music that I play most of it is music from directly unknown DJs. Some of them have no recording deals or anything. So I’m always looking for stuff to play. Actually, one of the DJs were bringing for the closing, his name is Enoo Napa. He’s like one of those DJs who has been releasing music with no record deal yet, but has literally been dominating my sets this summer. Then I proposed let’s bring him and this is his first trip overseas.
Along the way, I’ve wanted to pick up those young ones that I feel like have potential. But it mustn’t only end with Hï. I was in Berlin playing at Watergate and they have this party called Rise. And it’s literally about playing Afro-House music and they will have South African DJs playing with the locals from Berlin and I was saying to them, ‘I want to be able to take that party to South Africa so we can start doing the same exchange. ‘This month we bring two Germans the following month we take two South Africans to Germany.’
An exchange residency, in a sense.
Yeah! This is how I feel it’s going to go! If we can do it with Rise, we can do it with Djoon in Paris, and someone else in Japan and start doing collaborations. Bringing a Japanese DJ in Angola on Friday, he goes to South Africa on Saturday. For me, I think this is how we can grow the culture. This is how we can expose people to what’s happening in the world. And those elements will grow our city locally as well.
What are three tracks that have played large roles in your rotation at Hï, and what do you think makes them work particularly well on the dance floor?
One has to be a song called “Zow Music” it’s a remix by Lalou, an African producer who lives in Geneva. It’s a European-inspired song with an Afro beat. It works so well with what I do, because that is what I try and look for in my sets. My sets are not pure African tribal,you know. I try and borrow from both European and African worlds to keep it very unique. Because of the sets I’m starting to play with these elements, even back home, the producers are starting to understand the sound that crosses over. Some producers are young and they only know South Africa, their dream is to eventually grow and start doing shows outside and being recognized outside as well. I try and play music that connects those two worlds. This song is one of those songs.
Another one that’s been very strong is by Da Capo called “Resistance,” featuring Renee Thompson. I can’t really explain this one. I think it’s in the vocal approach and how it’s produced, how Da Capo worked his magic on the rhythm of this one.
A third one I can think of is, its a South African song, by Styx & Bones that is remixed by Manu. The song is called “Amasoon?.” The song is also on another level. Manu is originally from South Africa but he lives in France so he understands you know that bridge I was talking about also. Most of the music he creates, its a reflection of who he is, an African man who lives in France. These are the songs that I can say have been very strong on the sets at Hï.
What sorts of things are in line for Black Coffee for end of year/next year?
Because of the tour I’ve been really, really struggling on production work. I think that’s one thing I would like to establish, not given a single, but be to be able to get back into the groove. It’s always a complex thing for me to work in production. But once I start I get into that loop you know. So I’m expected to release a single on Ultra by the end of the year. But first, I mean the goal for me is to get back into production work and start working.
From what I understand, South Africa has so much value in albums themselves, are you still planning to continue creating albums as your body of work?
Yeah! Yeah, I’m working on an album to release possibly February or March next year. So lazily I have I been having ideas down. I think of this one song I did with an artist from London called Tom Misch. Very young, very, very talented kid. We were talking about working and so we went to the studio last month and did something. So far that’s the only song that has direction!
Even last night I was working on it so the whole idea by the end of February or March I release an album.
Sounds like something we can look towards that’ll be intersecting various styles with South Africa.
Yes, but also the world. My idea with this album is I wanna go across all genres. I’ve done a song with Burna Boy from Nigeria and a song with Swizz Beats and that’s the kind of album I want, someone you wouldn’t expect on a Black Coffee album. *Laughs* You know. Like guys from the world, have a Pharrell… if I can find a Pharrell. That’s the kind of an album I want, it’s not just, you know, more, more dance and techno based it’s everything that I’m inspired to do at the moment. Slow-tempo, mid-tempo, up-tempo, doesn’t matter.